And the world shall become Google
Google's digital attack and its consequences
Life is becoming smart and clean. All knowledge and communication stands at my disposal at any time. Everything becomes practical and efficient, simple, playful and always positive, everything becomes Google. Everyone can take part, it is free and voluntary. I can decide anytime and the whole world is open to me - I have nothing to hide.
So it seems. That's the product, the machine.
But if you look beyond the smartphone to face the WHY and the HOW, unpleasant questions and answers will arise, that push for consequences. Google is just one company of many, only part of the new power structures, but a crucial one. The technologies are powerful means and tools used to restructure capitalism and domination. To mark the fight against the Google Campus in Berlin-Kreuzberg, this megacorporation should be considered as an example here. However, there is no point in an analysis if there are no consequences for ones actions.
What does Google actually do?
The second largest company in the world is a huge network of companies. It is difficult to see through, because new companies are constantly being founded or start-ups are being bought. It is more like a complex network, but with a clear hierarchical leadership. So there are a lot of Google things that are not named Google.
Actually, the parent company is called Alphabet. Google is now one of many subsidiaries of Alphabet (Whenever we're referring to Google here, we're including Alphabet). Larry Page and Sergey Brin are the founders and absolute rulers of this empire. By the way: There are no photos of Larry Page's children on the internet. His house is hermetically sealed off to the outside world.
The world' s second most valuable corporation generated approximately 110 billion Dollar turnover, over 12 billion dollars profit and over 10 billion dollars were invested in development and research in 2017. About 95% of Revenues came from advertising business in 2014.
The company's complex network is as varied as the areas of what is produced and developed. I can only give some examples here to illustrate the dimensions and paint an image of the megacorporation. The different areas also often intertwine, complement each other or seem to be part of an overall strategy. In general, they appear to be huge companies, such as Google Search, but they are also smaller start-ups. What they have in common is the idea of Moonshots, the groundbreaking invention, for which total efficiency, absolute creativity, ruthlessness, and speed are necessary. Always at least ten times higher, always faster, always better than before, no matter the cost.
/// Internet & Software
Google operates countless websites. They are the world's largest providers of search engines (Google Search), video platforms (YouTube), email providers (Gmail), location determination (Google Maps), online tracking (Google Analytics)... This extent is enormous, the flood of data on Google servers gigantic.Google sees who, when, what is googled and what is viewed, Google scans all email content on Gmail, they track your movements and stops through your Maps search. But also movements on the Internet are tracked and recorded with Analytics. All this personal information can be combined. They are the main source of income: ( increasingly personalized ) advertising, designed to create and direct needs.
Google also distributes operating systems and programs. These include, for example, Android, the most widely used operating system for smartphones. Android is being further developed as an operating system for autonomous cars, smart devices etc... It is " free ", everyone can develop it further. As Google is well aware, the most valuable factor is market dominance and thus the monopoly on data exploitation - the new money. We pay with what we do, who we are, not with money. The most popular browser in the world, Chrome, was also developed by Google and eagerly sends information to the monopolist. Some of the articles recommended by Google on the home page of the standard browser on most smartphones now have almost as many clicks as Twitter. Furthermore, Google provides the online photo manager Google Photo (with automatic face recognition by artificial intelligence), Google Earth and various other apps. This is another example of how Google is installing itself in the everyday lives of most people.
This is the area that generates most of the current revenue. Many marketing and advertising companies use the personal data for targeted and therefore "valuable" advertising. Large and small sums are donated to various projects, even if at first glance they have nothing to do with Google. In addition to the usual political and institutional lobbying, these include donations to various start-ups ( conditions can hardly be identified), as well as projects that promote "technological progress", such as the transhumanist Singularity University or the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society in Berlin. In addition, for example, to newspapers such as the TAZ - Die Tageszeitung to modernize their Internet presence. Even if a direct return service is allegedly not necessarily expected, those who collect lobbying money always enter into a benevolent dependency.
There are also investments in infrastructure. Google's company Fiber ( currently only in the USA) builds and markets fiber optic networks and ports. The company Loon is developing internet balloons that will hover over large parts of the world (Africa is named as the first market) some day to provide everyone with internet - filtered by Google, of course. The company Lunar is researching human colonization of the moon.
/// Smart Live
Google's company Nest builds smart heating regulators and fire detectors that register, for example, when someone is in the room. Naturally, they are connected to the Google servers. Numerous start-ups, for instance, sell surveillance cameras that also broadcast in the Google cloud. Sidewalk Labs, a company for all-round smart urban development, should also be mentioned. In Toronto, Sidewalk Labs plans to transform a 325-hectare neighborhood into a smart city. For this purpose, Sidewalk Labs has been entrusted with technological and urban planning tasks by the government. Former government tasks will be taken over by Google, with the aim of making life "easier" through automation.
Everything is becoming a digital information network. With this project, smart objects and processes that can always be monitored, tracked and thus mostly controlled are to become a model for cities all over the world. It is unclear where and how the huge amounts of data are stored and what will happen with them. However, it should be clear that this will lead to unprecedented concentrations of power in companies.
Google Fit is also intended to smartly make everyday life easier. The fitness bracelet and constant transmission to the Google servers should increase self-optimization and provide very personal data for marketing purposes.
Physical exploitability is also ensured. Google is also developing hardware to further spread data sources and remain in direct control. For instance, the Google Phone with Android operating system and Artificial Intelligence. Or Google Assistant, a small speaker designed to embody the communication of the future: Voice controlled communication. Starting series on the TV, lowering the blinds, making phone calls, listening to music, writing mails, googling... all voice controlled using this little device. Here, too, all data is merged at Google, saved and definitely also analyzed. A voluntary bug, Big Brother in the bedroom and all are happy because it is so practical. There is even talk about the return of Google Glass this year. A pair of glasses that will scan and listen to the area in real time, while the user receives information from Google displayed on the lenses. As a result, a Google filter is created between the eye and the world that creates a powerful human-machine interface. Furthermore, no one in the vicinity knows whether all is being recorded, uploaded and saved; automatic face recognition is already a standard Google feature. Total surveillance, both convenient and voluntary. A few years ago, Google took the first version off the market because customers were not ready yet. There were bars that denied entry to "glass sholes" and some had their glasses knocked off their noses. A new generation is now being developed together with a manufacturer of eyewear. An interesting point of attack for all. For the future, Google is working on the development of smart contact lenses, which will probably hardly be recognized from the outside.
Google is also involved in the development of the quantum computer. Allegedly, it has already worked for a fraction of a second. If they succeed in getting this supercomputer to work, this might result in a quantum leap in computer science and thus also in biotechnology, robotics, etc. The result is a quantum leap in the development of quantum computers. Technologists claim that Artificial Intelligence in particular would make a huge leap forward. It is also assumed that a quantum computer could quickly decrypt encrypted e-mails that are intercepted today.
Google owns several robotics companies that reach into many different areas. For instance, nanobots are being developed which, in future, are supposed to be injected into the bloodstream to cure diseases. In addition, human-like robots are also being developed, as are machines capable of moving well in any terrain. Here, the cooperation in consulting and development with the military is obvious. In the future, the military will increasingly rely on robots in the field, but also in nanoscale.
This is an area that Google is excessively expanding, the health market is huge. Almost all major new players such as Amazon, Facebook or Google are investing enormous sums in this sector. The aim is to individualise medicine and develop new methods by combining biology, genetics, robotics and computer science.
Therefore, basic research is carried out to develop new pharmaceutical products, for personalized genome medicine and also to extend life in general. This may sound good at first, but will have profound consequences. Genetic modifications can have irreversible effects on nature - nobody really knows what will happen. The start-up 23andme, for example, which was funded and then bought by Google, is working on the child to order. They patented a technique to select eye color, risk of disease, height or muscle strength from a baby conceived in the laboratory. Even today, life expectancy varies greatly depending on where you grow up and how high the " technical standard of living " is.
Although this does not say anything about whether people are happy, it shows that genetically selected or modified people could initially become a privilege of the rich and healthy. Exploitative conditions would become even more extreme, the gap and differences in physical health would become even more visible and hierarchising.
Finally, Sergey Brin, head of Google, has a dream: "We want Google to become the third half of our brain." And the world shall become Google, all filtered by and linked to one corporation. So far this is just a future fantasy and dreams of omnipotence by a multi-billionaire. But Google is already working towards this goal. Interfaces between humans and machines intended to facilitate permanent interaction with the virtual world. For this purpose, Google is developing biostamps, sensor tablets and implants. A few years ago, a paraplegic was able to draw a circle on a monitor with a cable from a brain to a computer. Controlling a drone already works with just a helmet. These permanent connections with technologies make them indispensable; push dependence on smartphones and virtual social networks to extremes. Work is underway on a fusion that no longer allows separation and autonomy. Transhumanists, some of whom are financed by Google, are dreaming of new species that will eventually replace the inefficient human.
/// Artificial Intelligence
Ultimately, Google is extensively researching Artificial Intelligence (AI). Google is a heavyweight in this market segment. These include automatic face recognition (find my face), autonomous driving, Deepmind, software that works like neural networks and also the autocomplete function in Google Search. There has been tremendous progress in this area in recent years. After the victory of an AI over a GO world champion (a strategy game), as well as the composing of music pieces, many applications now rely on AIs. For example, the small listening device Google Assistant reacts to voice commands and imitates a personal assistant. All queries are sent to Google servers, where an AI searches for suitable answers. So the AI is supposed to "get to know" us better over time to perfect the interaction. An ideal way to disable or paralyse people's thinking for themselves. AI is predicted to have a great future as the heart of automation. Intelligent street lights, self-driving cars, online dating or content creation - an AI is at the heart of everything. AI writes Wikipedia and newspaper articles, analyses camera images and conducts job interviews.
How AIs and their underlying algorithms work, and what their decisions are based on, is known only to the companies behind them. The subject of numerous films is no longer fiction: an AI becomes autonomous and is turned against humans.
Recently, Google published a little experiment showing alarmingly what AIs are capable of. In the trial field there were three AIs. Two were supposed to develop the methods for encrypted communication amongst themselves. The third AI receiving all messages should decode them. Encryption methods got better fast, as they learned quickly. After two days, the two AIs communicated in an encrypted language that no human was able to understand. From a machine point of view, human languages are inefficient, so they developed their own. From that point on, the content remained hidden from outsiders. This test shows the danger of giving such AIs access to infrastructure for example so that they could become independent? These people were also proud that the AI had outsmarted them...
Aims of Google
Google says it wants to create a better world. In accordance with the former company motto "Don't be evil", it promises to do only good things to help people. With Google's technology, people are expected to live to be 130 years old, children are selected before birth, robots take on as many tasks as possible and Artificial Intelligence calculates our desires before we know them ourselves. But what is good, what is a better world? Google founder Larry Page attended a Montessori school, claims to love the independent spirit of discovery, and his office is no bigger or more expensive than any other. The mansions are located outside the corporate premises. He talks of flat hierarchies in the company, but above the creatives and programmers tower the founders and the board. Ultimately, they are the ones who decide that there should be flat hierarchies in the lower floors - to promote creativity. The products are the same. Be it a personalized search engine and advertising or an artificial intelligence in your living room: they are supposed answer your individual needs, yet they are controlled and governed by Google. The algorithms are secret, the data collection is central to Google. A couple of guys actually believe they know what's good for all of us. And for their wallets. And it is probably true that they are doing many things for humanity. But only in their interest. Aspiring to be masterminds of the world, they are incredibly powerful and influential. Whoever trusts these people, their technological faith as well as their products, will fall for a spectacle never accomplished by a dictator before.
Therefore Google works interdisciplinary. Robotics, biotechnology and computer science are merged to expand the technological desert. Google conducts research in all these areas and has countless start-ups and subcontractors. The divisions between the sectors are increasingly disappearing and converging with each other.
According to their own information, one of their goals is to bring together all the world's knowledge in Google. But why? Knowledge is power...But charitable Google wants to make this knowledge available to all people "free of charge". And we know what this free of charge means: Payment by user data and information. It also raises the question of why. When I walk down a street, I automatically filter the information, as I don't see the whole world right now. After all, humans are limited in their receptivity. Since too much information is overwhelming, Google kindly sorts it for us. Excellent results! A Google filtered world, because they alone define, using unknown patterns, what is relevant to me and which information I receive in the end.
Nevertheless, behind all the great assurances lie financial interests. Without billions of dollars, the megalomaniac dreams of the Google bosses would hardly be possible. After all, they also need their own villas. As we live in the world of exploitation, in capitalism, a megacorporation always needs more profits, increases in value, acquisitions and new sales markets.
Technology continues to intervene in all areas of life. It extends into space and into the smallest atoms. It is no longer just a tool, but a structuring force, the best friend, the hope, the objective. The net no longer allows an outside world, a smart prison - everywhere. The way we work, relate to each other, communicate and think is changing rapidly. "Being human" itself is being redefined. It is nothing new that excessive use of computers and smartphones is changing our behavior and creating new connections in the brain, while others atrophy. Linear thinking is replaced by erratic back and forth, more of everything, so that nothing lasts, nothing remains. Focus is limited to seconds, fast and fleetingly forgetful. Dementia is spreading and is to be compensated by machines that will also soon rewrite our history. "Gamification" (playfully addictive through irregular rewards such as good news, "nudging", which is always popping, so that no peace returns) is a common practice of corporations like Google. Everything becomes easy, short, smart, so that you no longer have to bother yourself. That's the trick. We must give up our comfort so as not to fall into the trap of domination. The extreme heteronomy of representation by politics. After all, what machines do for me, I never learn. Those who have mastered tough challenges know how much can be learned from them and how beneficial it is to have mastered them. Google wants to take this away from us, through directions, fast searches, care robots or all-round care. From now on, the principle of self-determination requires us not just to free ourselves from politics, but to cut the threads of the web and embrace the next challenge. By permeating ALL areas of life, companies like Google gain tremendous power. In the future, they will even surpass the power of states and emperors. The possibilities to influence are huge since extreme dependencies are created, and many people believe they can't live without them. It doesn't matter if it is Google or another company. It's about the patterns of heteronomy that infiltrate relationships, the bloodstream and my desires. Unsurprisingly, Google is also working with repressive agencies and the military to maintain these relationships.
For the next Moonshot - the groundbreaking invention - anything is acceptable. In the name of progress, the new world religion, research is carried out into dangerous matters without regard to losses or adverse effects. The new God, science, will do anything to advance mankind. Higher faster further. Nanoparticles are released into the world, genome changes are made and much more. These interventions are irreversible, nobody even has a clue as to the potential consequences. We are the rats in the laboratory Earth. Artificial Intelligence, once "released", can also develop its own dynamics, and the inefficient human might be in its way. Bit by bit, genetically modified plants, AIs etc. are being introduced until we face fait accompli.
"I have nothing to hide" is bullshit. We all have secrets, but on the net we do not immediately notice how quickly we are stripped. Just take a look at Google's turnover, generated by recording movements on the net and personalised advertising - it's billions. We don't know what will be done with this huge amount of data, because we have handed it over completely. The Data will be there forever and nobody can tell what some mad Larry Page, an artificial intelligence or a future dictator will do with it.
In the coming years there will be an enormous boost in automation. Robots, automated controllers, smart fridges... As a result, many jobs are likely to be cut and entire professions will disappear. Some believe that in 20 years 20% of today's workers will be unemployed. Lots of "superfluous" people who are no longer needed in a capitalist sense. Only perhaps as consumers. As a result, and also to keep the peace, companies and politicians are increasingly proposing a basic income. A basic income could calm this army of superfluous people and ensure consumption. At the same time, many professions will disappear. This is nothing new, new occupations have always appeared and old ones have died out.
However, what has already become apparent since industrialization continues to intensify in information technology and robotics: more and more specialists are needed for ever more complex technologies. Simple tasks are to be performed by machines, everything else by the few who understand these fairly well. Once again enormous dependencies, as production contexts become more and more alienated. And who understands how complex technologies actually work? Essentially, it's like parents who patronize their children: Never explain why things are the way they are and what the options are with their consequences, but only that it is the way it is and how things go as smoothly as possible. Time, relationships, work and life in general are increasingly moving into the realm of the virtual. The fact that the framework for this, and the possibilities, are always determined by the programmers, doesn't seem to bother most people. But here it's no longer up to you what you can and can't say. Your framework for action is determined by the design, not by yourself. On top of that, many people forget how to communicate without using devices. But what happens if they don't work anymore? It becomes more and more normal to enter into deep connections with machines. In Japan, a woman married her robot, robots play cards in retirement homes, and an Internet implant seems to be just a matter of time.
But we don't have to look far ahead: Today, the smartphone appears to have fused with people, much is organized through it, "contacts" are maintained, and constant exposure is guaranteed. In its absence, withdrawal symptoms like loneliness and nervousness have become the norm. Persistent connections to machines will deeply influence and change our behaviour and thinking. Direct contact and exchange with other people and above all with oneself are being suppressed. Calmness, reflectiveness, wandering thoughts... are left to devices that take a large part of them away from us.
The boundaries between person, object, relationship and thought become blurred. As everything is entered into a device, everything is converted into information. The Internet of Things, i.e. the networking of as many devices and things as possible and the Smart City, are also an important part of this development. And since information is quantifiable, it can be categorized, or rather, algorithms have to categorize every piece of information somewhere. On which basis this happens is usually totally unclear, since they are often only known to the programmers or they are self-learning. Information is organized, sorted, according to criteria that always elude the individual. Anything that can be measured and categorized can also be calculated and thus controlled. Comprehensive control over movements, preferences, relationships and behaviour in general is achieved. One example is the planned elimination of cash, leading to a situation in which we would only be able to pay digitally and thus all payment transactions would be traceable. Direct control and thus influence by companies affects every aspect of life.
"Freedom is when your data volume is as large as your love" - an advertising slogan of a cell phone network provider. This phrase exemplifies a whole strategy. Freedom and individuality are sold to us. Only by being tied to complex technologies can you build relationships, have friends and feel free. After all, you only need all the possibilities to be free. The meaning of freedom as greatest possible autonomy, self-organization and mutual responsibility is turned upside down here. Because the net, the framework in which we are allowed to be "free", is getting denser and narrower.
I call this the strategy of total appropriation. Not being a part of it is getting more and more difficult. From omnipresent, increasing control by sensors and cameras everywhere to the excluding voluntary use of e.g. virtual social networks.
Imagine, for example, that in the near future a locked subway door will only open if I pay with a smartphone. Do I let myself be excluded from public transport or do I submit to it? What if one day an implanted chip permanently connected to Google or anyone else is required? And payment systems are just one of many examples.
This tendency can also be seen with ID cards, job conditions, study groups, etc. Those who show deviant behaviour are conspicuous, this is already reality. Many niches, which can still be found in present-day bullshit, will disappear. Those who refuse participate in certain things will experience a much more profound break in the future, with serious consequences for the individual. Total entrapment in the free net.
The dependence on devices and their networks results in a severe loss of independence and autonomy. If specialists* are required for everything, if all structures, such as communication, are predefined, heteronomy wins. As a result, the penal system will change. The "functioning" of the citizens usually enforced by state, cops and law will be replaced by self disciplining. Continuous control, regular irregular digital nudges and constant interaction in the net create a blanket predefined structure in which life is allowed to take place. There will certainly continue to be cops and jails, as there are always people who do not play by the rules of this game. Control and disciplining, however, will become more intelligent, smarter, more invisible, less tangible, and much more internalized, i.e., incorporated into oneself, as circumstances so require.
The way in which devices, such as the smartphone and its programs, are designed as things in themselves is useful. The constant fast interaction, low level challenges and restraints, treating people as they appear on the net, never-ending and lingering, is what characterizes television and digital worlds. There are extensive studies on what is clear to anyone awake and watching: Empathy, compassion, concentration as well as cognitive abilities such as thinking, remembering and spontaneity are increasingly lost. Linear thinking is replaced by a frantic back and forth. People are bound by this supposedly quick and clean solution. Many managers now take mini-breaks without digital devices - a luxury! In order to become focused and clear again, in order to plug in again.
A brief excursion into the future: Ray Kurzweil, chief developer at Google, is perhaps the best-known advocate of the so-called Transhumanism. According to this idea, humans should first be improved by devices until the inefficient human species is finally brought to an end after merging with machines and programs in favor of new species. It is already apparent, however, that Google's products will no longer be just prostheses. In other words, instruments that replace our actual abilities with devices. In the future, humans will probably be more of a prosthesis to the Google machine, the total connection and exhaustion of all information.
All of these aspects point to an overall attack on autonomy and self-determination. Yet freedom is based on these conditions. This is nothing new, autonomy has always been a threat to any practice of domination and exploitation. Nevertheless, capitalism is in crisis, and in order to exist it must continue to grow. What else is to be exploited? Now that basic needs and all other things have been exploitet, our relationships, desires and thoughts themselves will be next. An infinite market, since the needs of the body are limited. Those who are hungry will be full for a while. But all that happens in the mind is infinitely exploitable, there are no limits to the imagination.
Power is regrouping, exploitation is being restructured. It is tempting to say that everything used to be better before. But the actual power relations remain, they only change their face, their strategies and their form. They are becoming smart, positive and always useful. Identifying an enemy is becoming more and more difficult. In the past it might have been a slaver with a whip or the boss' intimidating warnings. Today, however, it's all your friends and the instruments of control that allow you to be with them. This new orientation makes it a bit complicated, since everything is voluntary and we are all part of it. But we must not forget that it is possible to follow the consequences of this knowledge ourselves. There are still people and structures that carry the main responsibility for these structures and can also be attacked. Usually they are the ones who profit most. Additionally, if everything is everywhere, the network flows are the most vulnerable points, as modern systems are deeply dependent on power lines, fiber optic cables and the movement of goods.
Here I would like to point out the significance of current and future developments. But none of this is fixed, the future is unwritten. There will always be possibilities to defend oneself, to show sparks of a world without domination and to expand autonomy.
Why Prevent Something Like A Google Campus?
Actually, this can be seen as an example. A Google campus or many other places where criticisms of the power of complex technologies can unfold. It is a place where conflict exists or can be caused.
/// So Why?
On the one hand, companies like Google will drive an immense revaluation of the area (in the capitalist sense) anywhere they settle. Such projects are incubators, initiators for further development. From experience in other cities, start-ups that have not made it to the top of the Google campus will try to settle in the area. Proximity to Google and other "Incubators" may also tempt start-ups to settle nearby. The area becomes even more expensive than it already is, people who can no longer afford it have to move elsewhere. Social environments crumble. A familiar "phenomenon". However, as long as property itself exists, there will always be exploitation. Who needs a landlord? If homes were owned by those who live in them, it would no longer be possible for others, often the rich anyway, to skim off their value. This is a far-reaching discussion that can only be briefly mentioned here, but is important because many of the residents living around the new tech sites primarily seem to fear displacement rather than exploitation by the digital world.
Nonetheless, the technological attack, by Google among others, is profound and lasting, and concerns us all. That is why we need specific projects to address it.
/// What is the Goal?
Different assessments are possible here. In my opinion, however, the prevention of a Google Campus is only one milestone. Physical locations are also cause, but mainly the symptom. If a campus is prevented, companies like Google will nevertheless continue to distribute their products. If we destroy Google, another company will continue. This is not to be discouraged, but to come to a real assessment. Naturally, it is a great feeling to prevent the campus, and a sign to the world that they can be disturbed. It gives courage. It is possible. But even an open campus could perhaps have offered even more points of attack...
The real goal must be a completely different life. The abolition of exploitation, the development of initiative and solidarity, the expansion of autonomy and self-organisation. These goals are directed against Google and any kind of domination. This is fundamentally opposed to any kind of policy, be it by political parties, or people and initiatives that negotiate with those in charge, be it through petitions, demands made to the government, or demands for lower rents. If you act within the system in this way, you may be able to delay developments, but at the same time you will contribute to making it more stable. Criticism and commitment are welcome in order to maintain the mirage that we could make a difference through reforms in their game. But as we have seen: Whoever defines the framework determines the way forward. If I want to decide for myself which path to take, the structure must be destroyed, both in terms of a thing and an idea. The fight against the Google Campus was thus only a temporary focus and impetus. We can point out the contradictions of this society and fuel conflicts in the direction of revolt, insurrection, upheaval and a transformation towards a world of solidarity. We can come together and get to know each other, practice resistance and complicity instead of elbow mentality. Relationships can remain, they can survive a temporary conflict.
Experiencing a praxis of questioning domination can open up possibilities for further action, and self-organization itself is the goal and path of a society without exploitation.
We can show: No, not like this! That is something we can win by opposing heteronomy with concrete self-determination.
Finally, the text "How to fight against the Google Campus?" from the newspaper SHITSTORM, proposing ways to fight the Google Campus. These ideas can, also inspire other projects and provide starting points towards as much self-determination as possible when fighting in a world dominated by others.
(from: SHITSTORM – Anarchistische Zeitung – Berlin, Januar 2018 - #2)